The fundamental forces of nature and the search for their unity-2
In the previous episode we discussed gravitational force in detail. Let’s talk a little bit about another basic force — the electromagnetic force. Saying ‘so’ does not mean the same thing again. There are many differences between them. For example, a gravitational force acts between two massed objects, but an electromagnetic force requires two charged objects or two charged particles (such as electrons, protons) to act. Gravitational force is not only attractive but electromagnetic force represents both attraction and repulsion. If two charges are of the same type (e.g. both are positive or both are negative) then the electromagnetic force inside them will be repulsive and if the two charges are opposite (one positive the other negative) then the force will be attractive.
Let me tell you another difference. Gravity is a very weak force, if its mass is not too much, its existence cannot be felt, as I have said before. Not only is the electromagnetic force so weak, but it is also quite strong compared to gravity. For example, if you compare the working gravitational and electromagnetic ball between a proton and an electron inside an atom, you will see that the electromagnetic force is about 1040 times stronger than the gravitational ball! Think? The matter can be easily understood by giving an example. Suppose you have a magnet and an iron nail (or at least an alpin) in your hand. Can you keep the alpin floating in the air without effort? No, you can’t. It will fall down due to the gravitational pull of the earth. But if you bring the alpin closer to the magnet, you will see that it is attached to the magnet, not falling down. What does this mean?
The magnetic force of the magnet is much greater than the magnitude of the planet Alpin. Yes, more. Because the two are not the same type of ball. One gravitational force is another electromagnetic force and the second force is relatively much stronger.
However, what kind of interaction a charged particle will interact with the magnetic field is understood with this force. Because of this ball, the electrons inside the atom are moving around the nucleus, again tying the atoms together inside the object. Absorption of light-radiation etc. is also happening due to this ball. The use of electricity and magnets is an inevitable part of our daily lives, there is also this ball game.
About one hundred years after Newton formulated a formula for calculating the force of gravity, in 175, the French physicist Charles Coulomb formulated a formula for calculating the electromagnetic force. The two formulas are very similar. This formula can be used to determine the electromagnetic attraction or repulsive force between two charged particles. This force is proportional to the product of the two charges and the distance between them is disproportionate. The mathematical form of the formula is as follows:
Here q1 and q2 are the charge of the first and second garments respectively and r is the distance between them. And Shaw is a constant. Its value is k = 8.988 x 109 Nm2C-2
As I said before, the gravitational force is very weak but the electromagnetic force is relatively strong. But fortunately this ball only works within the charged object, in the case of a charge-neutral object this ball has no effect, and that is why we do not feel this powerful force.
However, Coulomb’s formula was the first attempt to explain electromagnetic phenomena. Since then a lot more work has been done on this. In 1819, the Danish physicist Hans Christian Werstad discovered that there was a deep connection between electricity and magnetism. He showed that electric current is capable of producing magnetic force. In 1839, the British physicist Michael Faraday showed the exact opposite, that magnets have the ability to generate electricity. The most important work was done by the Scottish physicist James Clark Maxwell in the 180’s. He presented an explanation of the electromagnetic wave, determined its velocity (which is equal to the speed of light), described the properties of the electromagnetic ball, and formulated the Maxwell equation consisting of four formulas. That is, he presented a complete theory to explain electromagnetic phenomena.
We are very familiar with gravity and electromagnetic balls and we cannot avoid their effects even for a moment in our daily life. But there are two more fundamental forces of nature — a strong nuclear force, another weak nuclear force, the influence of which we are utterly indifferent to. Now let’s talk about them.
Let’s start with strong nuclear force. We already know the structure of the atom. I learned that the nucleus is at the center of the atom and the electrons revolve around it. Inside the nucleus are two types of particles called protons and neutrons. Although neutrons are charge-neutral, we also know that protons are positively charged particles. But similarly charged particles repel each other, as we have discussed in the discussion of electromagnetic balls. The value of this electromagnetic repulsion is also not very small, at least much higher than that of gravity. So how do protons come together in a tiny space (about 10-15 meters in size of the nucleus) despite so much repulsion? Is that the effect of the gravitational ball? Not at all. As I said before, gravity is a very weak force. Apart from that, protons are so small particles and their mass is so low that the force of gravity is almost zero in this case.